O'Brien Institute COVID-19 research projects

The COVID-19 pandemic is the biggest health emergency of our time. O'Brien Institute members are undertaking essential research and innovation during this crisis that will be crucial in containing and mitigating the effects of the rapidly evolving pandemic.

Read about ongoing projects below, and please submit relevant projects to iph@ucalgary.ca

More COVID-19 resources for UCalgary researchers here

Population health research projects

Dr. Gavin McCormack (CSM), Dr. Patricia Doyle-Baker (Kinesiology)

Late in 2019, UCalgary researchers began a collaboration with Vivo for Healthier Generations Society (Vivo). The objective is to send out a baseline survey in April 2020 to evaluate the impact of an outdoor play intervention on physical activity, play, and social wellbeing of families residing in north-central Calgary communities. The COVID-19 restrictions however, have impacted how people engage and interact with each other and their environments. The UCalgary and Vivo team together, identified a rare opportunity within the baseline survey to also investigate, and measure how these unprecedented restrictions are impacting family’s physical activity choices, decisions, and routines. This research will lead to unique information about the indirect impacts of disease pandemics on physical activity and play.

•       Please note, researchers have not collected any data yet

Dr. Jeanna Parsons Leigh

 

Socio-Cultural Implications of COVID-19: Educating, Engaging & Empowering the Public

A project led by Dr. Jeanna Parsons Leigh includes 13 UCalgary faculty and staff members. This study will develop a national campaign to educate the Canadian public on coronavirus and COVID-19, and empower them to make informed health-care decisions.

Funding: Operating Grant: COVID-19 - Public health response and its impact

More info

Dr. Reed Beall, Dr. Aidan Hollis

Towards Better Governance of Zoonotic Disease Risk: One Health Principles in the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Response

Dr. Reed Beal is part of a team (along with Dr. Aidan Hollis at the University of Calgary and led by Ron Labonte at the University of Ottawa) that received rapid response funding from CIHR for CoVid19 to study the drug innovation pipeline. At the moment, the team is studying the global response in terms of clinical trial uptake for CoVid19 versus H1N1.

Funding: CIHR Operating Grant: COVID-19 - Coordination, governance and logistics

More info

Dr. Ranjani Somayaji and Dr. Caley Shukalek

We are currently experiencing a global pneumonia pandemic lacking any recent precedent, caused by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). To date, it has infected over 1,000,000 persons worldwide. Drastic measures have been taken by governments and public health officials in an attempt to decrease the spread of this infection. These measures have included restrictions on border crossing, airline travel, work, and gathering of people for any reason. The impact of both the infection and the responses taken may be affecting individuals in many different ways.  As the impact of the local and global measures may be far reaching, we aim to explore these measures on individual’s lives.

TAKE THE SURVEY: Individuals can take part in a one-time online survey about the effect the COVID-19 response has had on their lives here. The survey will take 15-20 minutes to complete. 

Contacts: Ranjani SomayajiCaley Shukalek

Dr. Edwin Wang

Big data, networks and artificial intelligence (AI). We will manually curate the patient-level data of more than 10,000 Covid-19 cases including >600 child cases from the case reports on official websites of 28 China's provincial public health agencies. These cases contain contact-tracing information which allows us to piece together chains/networks of transmission. We will obtain another Covid-19 cohort in Alberta to compare it with the Chinese cohort. We also access machine-readable datasets in the COVID-19 Open Research Dataset (CORD-19) supported by the US government. Objectives: To identify and examine the impact of key-spreading social contact patterns on Covid-19 transmission networks, and develop intervention strategies to prevent the virus spread for kids and adults, respectively.

Contact: Edwin Wang

Dr. Gavin McCormack 

Exploring the lived experiences and perceptions of engaging in physical activity and sedentary behaviour among adults during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Researchers will undertake a qualitative study to explore the lived experiences and perceptions of engaging in physical activity and sedentary behaviour among adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study has 3 objectives:

(1) Describe how physical activity (e.g., recreational, transportation, household, and occupational) have been impacted as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic;

(2) Describe how sedentary behaviours (e.g., use of screen based activity and passive transport) have been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, and;

(3) Explore perceptions of and experiences with the built environment in relation to engaging in physical activity and sedentary behaviour during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Funding: CIHR 

Three University of Calgary-led research teams have received over $1.6 million in federal funding to accelerate the development, testing and implementation of countermeasures to mitigate the rapid spread of COVID-19, and its consequences on people and communities.

W21C is partnering with the School of Public Policy on this rapid research assessing Alberta’s preparedness and response. Dr. Myles Leslie, PhD, Dr. John Conly, MD, with project co-leads Dr. Jan Davies, MD, Dr. Raad Fadaak, PhD, and Johanna Blaak, are evaluating how COVID-19 preparedness and response policies are being transmitted to, and implemented in, hospitals and family doctors’ offices in Alberta.

More info

Vulnerable populations research projects

Two projects by Dr. Katrina Milaney 

  1. Engaging community organizations into research and policy priorities that need action behind them. Intended outcome: Help inform the role Calgary’s Social Action HUB could play in this space.
     
  2. Engaging government, decision makers and policy makers into discussions of how decisions are made and how priorities are identified during a pandemic - how this impacts service delivery and how this impacts vulnerable populations. Help inform the role Calgary’s Social Action HUB could play in this space

    Contact: Katrina Milaney 

Dr. Katrina Milaney

Implementing and evaluating a managed alcohol program for Indigenous adults experiencing homelessness 

A harm reduction housing intervention and evaluation that targets Indigenous people who chronically experience homelessness and live in shelter. The first 6 months of this project will reflect implementation of harm reduction housing programs in the COVID-19 pandemic. 


Funding: Canadian Institute of Health research (CIHR) three –year grant.

Contact: Katrina Milaney 

Dr. Katrina Milaney 

Perceived need for health services for chronically homeless adults who use drugs and alcohol 

Assessing childhood trauma and health and substance use patterns of chronically homeless individuals. Researchers will survey 300 people, and can include questions that reflect the pandemic. This study is a follow up to one that was done three years ago.

Contact: Katrina Milaney 

Dr. Katrina Milaney 

Heal the healer: Assessing strategies to reduce burnout for front-line staff working in domestic violence 

A project with the Calgary Domestic Violence Collective assessing strategies to reduce burnout and enhance self-care for frontline workers in ‘high stress' positions. This project is being adapted to include implications of COVID-19. 

Contact: Katrina Milaney 

Dr. Katrina Milaney 

Employment supports for youth with barriers to employment (mental health and/or substance abuse)

Under review: A knowledge synthesis project to identify 'best practices' for supporting youth with mental health barriers into stability and employment - we are engaging a youth with former lived experience of homelessness and mental health as a research consultant to help engage youth. This project is being adapted to include implications of COVID-19. 

Contact: Katrina Milaney 

Dr. Meghan McDonough

Ongoing project examining social support, social barriers, and social outcomes related to physical activity participation among older adults, particularly those who are vulnerable to social isolation. This project has been expanded to include examining experiences of older adults who are unable to participate in group physical activity recreation opportunities due to COVID-19. Researchers are also planning further proposals to look at how social distancing during COVID-19 affects older adults’ experiences with physical activity and social participation, and implications for their well-being.

Dr. Sarah Kenny

Dr. Sarah Kenny is leading a study on a dance program for older adults in University Heights, examining participants’ experiences with dance-based group physical activity programming, and implications for well-being, physical literacy, and social relationships. The project includes talking to participants about their experiences of not being able to attend the group classes during the COVID-19 pandemic, and is exploring whether options for online delivery work for older adults.

Dr. Ilyan Ferrer

A study by Dr. Ilyan Ferrer examines the early and ongoing responses of non-profit service sector agencies during the COVID-19 pandemic. Through online interviews and focus groups, the study examines the structural and individual challenges and creative strategies in working with older adults living within various communities (long-term care housing, remote communities, etc).

Dr. Pamela Roach

Understanding the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the well-being and care provision for patients at University of Calgary Brain and Mental Health Clinics

The aim of this proposal is to develop an in-depth understanding of how the COVID-19 pandemic is impacting the well-being and changing health services needs of people living with neurological or psychiatric conditions and their family members or care partners. Through developing this understanding we can inform our development of how best to provide virtual care in times of decreased social/physical contact and develop policy and service recommendations. These recommendations may be used in times of future pandemics; extreme weather phenomenon; outbreaks of other disease or isolation in supportive living or long term care facilities; or other emergencies where social distancing/isolation/virtual care may be required. 

Funding: Cumming School of Medicine Rapid Response Covid-19 Clinical Research Fund

Dr. Rita Henderson

Mitigating COVID-19 transmission among at-risk patients with opioid use disorder via improved tracking of impacts from illicit source disruption and facilitated access to buprenorphine-naloxone  

University of Calgary Team: 

Rita Isabel henderson (NPI) – Models of Care Scientist, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Family Medicine 

Steven Persaud (Co-PI) – Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Family Medicine 

Lynden (Lindsay) Crowshoe (Co-PI) – Associate Professor, Department of Family Medicine 

Pamela Roach (Co-I) – Program Manager/Adjunct Professor, Brain & Mental Health Clinics, HBI 

Myles Leslie (Co-I) – Health Services Researcher, Associate Director of Research, School of Public Policy 

Community Research Partners: 

Bonnie Healy (Co-I) – Health Director, Blackfoot Confederacy 

William Wadsworth (Co-I) – Policy and Data Analyst, Treaty 7 Corporation 

The COVID-19 outbreak has prompted Opioid Agonist Therapy (OAT) clinics to rethink their practices to balance risks of one public health emergency against another: the overdose crisis against a global pandemic. Currently, clinicians report that conventional OAT guidelines could be modified in favour of facilitating physical distancing measures for vulnerable patients. Additionally, front-line providers express concern that individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD) currently not connected to OAT are at even more risk than usual, as their illicit sources dry up due to border closings and increased prices in their street supply. First Nations research partners report growing desperation among those affected, a situation that poses to undermine both individual and population health. Risk behaviour driven by desperation among socially-vulnerable groups will have little regard for COVID-19 safety measures, especially in inner-city and rural/remote communities affected by disproportionate presence of OUD, resource disparities, and minimal infrastructure to endure an outbreak. The research will profile emergent risks related to OUD and COVID-19 among socially-vulnerable groups, which due to structural inequities tend to be medically underserved. Researchers will evaluate models of care adapted by OAT-providing clinicians to navigate dual public health emergencies, balancing harm reduction during an overdose crisis with physical distancing during the pandemic. 

Funding: $10K: Clinical Research Fund, matching from a Health Canada fund for enhancing opioid agonist therapy access in Indigenous contexts in Alberta

Contact: Dr. Rita Henderson 

Participants

O’Brien Institute for Public Health, University of Calgary, Alberta, Calgary, Alberta

Applied Research and Innovation Services Department (ARIS), Centre for Innovation and Research in Unmanned Systems (CIRUS), School of Construction, SAIT, Alberta, Calgary, Alberta

ProvLab Alberta, Calgary, Alberta  

Stoney Nation Health Centre, Stoney Nation, Morley Alberta  

Delivery of Medical Supplies and Transport of Specimens from Remote First Nation Communities to Testing Sites Utilizing Beyond Line of Sight (BVLOS) Remotely Piloted Aerial Systems (RPAS) During the COVID-19 Pandemic

There have been 10 epidemics between 2003 and 2017 with increasing frequency and expectation for a pandemic based on our ever-expanding global scope of business and lifestyle. The COVID 19 pandemic continues to evolve with estimated cases and deaths involving countries [March, 2020]. As expected, this pandemic is a result of faster and further global travel and a lack of adequate preparedness, coordinated interventions, and community engagement with the greatest mortality rates expected in the most vulnerable populations. The peak of COVID 19 will vary by country and region, remains difficult to predict, and may be weeks to months away with subsequent waves being anticipated. Pandemics have 3 phases; containment, control/mitigation, and elimination/eradication. Maintaining societal Health Security [protect itself from the health impact and social disruption consequences] is paramount during phases 1 and 2. For the biomedical aspect, we need to mitigate spread and contain the COVID 19 virus and simultaneously maintain continuity of health services. Key elements of maximizing Health Security are equity and solidarity, preparedness, and engaging communities. We can strengthen our responses during this/any pandemic by focusing on these key elements particularly in vulnerable populations. Operationally, with an emphasis on the first 2 phases of pandemic management, this requires coordinated responses with health interventions, in particular testing and surveillance. Pandemic agent testing must be; early, equitable, effective, and be community-inclusive. Engaging communities and building Health Security capacity requires building trust, empowerment, and coordinated and maintained health services. Community engagement also requires expert communication content [e.g.  pandemic education, community risk, follow-up] and delivery. Together, with the proper health services delivery, engaged communities respond to and manage better pandemic circumstances which leads to less morbidity and mortality and greater community resiliency.    

Southern Alberta Institute of Technology (SAIT) is supporting innovation and new technology development through its Applied Research and Innovation Services department (ARIS). Researchers within ARIS’s Centre for Innovation and Research in Unmanned Systems (CIRUS), faculty from SAIT's School of Construction, students and industry partners converge in this cross-disciplinary environment to address challenges, create efficiencies, and develop and test new and innovative products and applications to satisfy corporate business needs and the emerging COVID-19 pandemic. SAIT is well positioned to support societal needs with the COVID-19 pandemic and to explicitly assist the vulnerable First Nations populations. Our assistance in maintaining an adequate chain of medical supplies and distribution is paramount during the COVID-19 pandemic and applicable in general to remote First Nation communities.

SAIT has been establishing a partnership with the Ward of the 21st Century (W21C) for the past two months. W21C is a healthcare systems research and innovation initiative based at the University of Calgary’s O’Brien Institute for Public Health, and the Calgary Zone of Alberta Health Services (AHS). AHS recognizes the need for innovation in healthcare [see AHS Strategy for Clinical Health Research, Innovation and Analytics 2015-2020 at https://www.albertahealthservices.ca/assets/info/res/if-res-strat-doc.pdf for details] around three strategic directions; 1. Ensuring quality of care in our communities, 2. Partnering for better health outcomes, and 3. Achieving health system sustainability.                                                                                       W21C serves AHS and industry within these strategic directions as a research and beta test-site for exemplary hospital design, novel approaches to healthcare delivery, human factors research, and innovative medical technologies.

After a number of preliminary meetings between SAIT and W21C, and the intensification of the COVID-19 Pandemic, SAIT was asked to prepare a proof of concept document, with the aim of forging a partnership to test and develop methodology for the utilization of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) to deliver medical supplies to remote First Nation Communities. Members of W21C have been holding meetings with existing First Nation Community contacts to solicit interest in the project. They have received a high level of interest and verbal approval to proceed from each community they have contacted. This proof of concept project will be used to develop a roadmap for RPAS-based medical delivery operations with a focus on the Nakoda (Stoney), Eden Valley and Big Horn First Nation communities. At the conclusion of this project, we will be in position to transition this research into a fully operational RPAS-based medical delivery to any First Nation community in Alberta.

Dr. David Hogan

 

The Canadian Geriatrics Society (CGS) fosters the health and well-being of older Canadians and older adults worldwide. Although severe COVID-19 illness and significant mortality occur across the lifespan, the fatality rate increases with age, especially for people over 65 years of age. The dichotomization of COVID-19 patients by age has been proposed as a way to decide who will receive intensive care admission when critical care unit beds or ventilators are limited. This research project provides perspectives and evidence why alternative approaches should be used.

Dr. Deirdre McCaughey & Dr. Gwen McGhan

Canadians over the age of 60 account for 36% of the COVID-19 cases but 95% of the deaths, with 82% of the total deaths being linked to long-term care and seniors’ homes. The increasing challenges in care provision brought on by pandemic restrictions and guidelines, including the “no visitor policy” in long-term care facilities, has contributed to unintended consequences and negative experiences for older adults and their families.

In partnership with local Calgary dementia support organizations, we are currently conducting a pilot study to measure the impact of COVID-19 pandemic restrictions on Family Care Givers (FCGs) for persons living with dementia (PLWD) in the community and in care facilities.

The objectives of this study are:

#1: Implement a provincial survey of FCG for PLWD COVID-19 experiences.

#2: Asses provincial data to identify information and resources needed for FCGs during the COVID-19 pandemic and how pandemic restrictions have impacted PLWD.

#3: Develop provincial health system recommendations to optimize information, resources, and access for FCGs of PLWD during the current COVID-19 pandemic and for future public health emergency planning.

This study is supported in part by the Alzheimer Society of Calgary and in-kind by the Dementia Network Calgary.

Health systems research projects

Dr. Stephen Freedman

Clinical characteristics and outcomes of children potentially infected by SARS-CoV-2 presenting to pediatric emergency departments

The manifestations of COVID-19 in children are not yet well understood, and may be atypical when compared to adults. Researchers will carry out a two-year global prospective study that will enroll and follow-up children with suspected COVID-19 from 50 participating emergency departments (ED) across 19 countries.

Funding: Operating Grant: Canadian 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Rapid Research Funding Opportunity - Clinical management

More info

Dr. David Nicholas

Exploring the Psychosocial and Health Service Consequences of Coronavirus on Children and their Families: Lessons Learned for Pediatric Health Care Practice and Policy

Dr. David Nicholas, PhD, and his team will assess how the COVID-19 outbreak impacts health-care delivery for pediatric patients and their families. Children with pre-existing health conditions, especially those undergoing treatment, are a highly vulnerable population during an outbreak. This study will offer recommendations for practice, policy development and health emergency contingency planning.

Funding: Operating Grant: COVID-19 - Public health response and its impact

More info

Dr. Myles Leslie

Policy Implementation and Communication Lessons from Alberta's Acute and Primary Care Environments During the COVID-19 Response

A team led by Dr. Myles Leslie, PhD, will evaluate how COVID-19 preparedness and response policies are being transmitted to, and implemented in, hospitals and family doctors’ offices in Alberta. This research will create a detailed description of how policies are formed, transmitted, and put into action as the outbreak develops in Alberta. Working alongside public health professionals and clinicians, the team will help identify opportunities for improving response efforts in real time, and for future public health emergencies.

Funding: Operating Grant: COVID-19 - Public health response and its impact

More info

Dr. John Conly

This Canadian multi-centre randomized controlled trial will focus on understanding whether medical masks are a safe and effective alternative to N95 respirators for healthcare workers, specifically when providing care involving certain procedures for treating COVID-19. This trial, led by Dr. Mark Loeb, MD, Infectious Disease Director at McMaster University, will take place in 16 locations across Canada. The W21C research site is being led by infectious disease specialist Dr. John Conly, MD.

Dr. Kirsten Fiest 

A Canadian study focused on COVID-19 restricted visitation policies and their impact on critically ill patients, families and healthcare providers

Funding: CIHR

This study is currently recruiting patients - more details here

 

Clinical research projects

Dr. Edwin Wang

The current test: with collaborations with a Chinese team, who has many years of experience in developing technologies in virus detection, we have developed a test kit that could detect COVID-19 virus as low as 100 RNA copies in 40 min at 85% of accuracy with the following advantages: reaction products are visible to naked eyes (i.e., via colors), while no elaborate equipment and well-trained specialists are required. It is portable and a point-of-care test for front-line practitioners at community-level.

Contact: Edwin Wang

Dr. Michael Hill  

With support from Alberta Health Services Strategic Clinical Networks, and the Government of Alberta, the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial Alberta HOPE COVID-19 will recruit over 1,600 Albertans who have recently tested positive for COVID-19 to determine whether a prescribed five-day treatment of the drug hydroxychloroquine can prevent hospitalization for those at highest risk of developing a severe illness.

Contact: craig.doram@ucalgary.cameboesen@ucalgary.cagcerchia@ucalgary.cakjryckbo@ucalgary.ca

More info

Dr. Nauzer Forbes

Detailed registry aiming to capture detailed data on the first consecutive 1000-1500 inpatients with COVID across 25-30 North American centres. 

Funding: none

Contact: Nauzer Forbes

Dr. Alain Tremblay, Dr. John Conly

International Clinical Trial Investigating Potential Therapeutic Treatments for COVID-19 in Hospitalized Patients

Led by Dr. Alain Tremblay, MD, as Principal Investigator and Dr. John Conly, MD, as Co-Investigator, W21C team members will support the World Health Organization’s Canadian arm of the Solidarity trial (CATCO). This clinical trial looks to assess four possible treatment options and their relative effectiveness against COVID-19. Participants will be assessed daily, with additional follow-ups after being discharged. 

 

Dr. Gilaad Kaplan, Dr. Stephanie Coward

A large international registry was created to track the outcomes of individuals with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) who have been diagnosed with COVID-19. Using this repository, created at the University of North Carolina,  an interactive map was created which allows individuals to visually track the cases and their outcomes around the globe.

Funding details: International Organization for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IOIBD).

Contact: Stephanie Coward PhD 
Kaplan Research Coordinator | IBD-Unit Epidemiologist
Department of Medicine

Medical education research projects

Study Team: Allison Brown, Rahim Kachra, Aliya Kassam, Mike Paget 

Overview: The COVID-19 pandemic has already had a large impact on the training of doctors - teaching has entirely moved online, clinical clerks have been removed from their rotations, and residents are being prepared to provide care on other services. This cross-sectional survey aims to broadly explore the impact of the pandemic on medical students and residents around the world. This anonymous, voluntary survey takes 5-10 minutes is available in multiple languages.

Funding: None.

To learn more about this study and participate, click here

Data science and Artificial Intelligence (AI) research projects

Dr. Tyler Williamson, Dr. Nishan Sharma 

To fight the spread, and flatten the curve, O’Brien Institute members Dr. Tyler Williamson and Dr. Nishan Sharma are exploring a provincial breakdown of when and where the virus is spreading, and comparing Alberta’s data to what is happening elsewhere in the world, all through the lens of different public health interventions in various jurisdictions. This information is being used to inform Calgary’s response to the pandemic.

See the data here.

Read more about this work here

One health research projects

Dr. Rebecca Archer, Dr. Herman Barkema 

There’s lots of uncertainty and misinformation about people contracting and spreading COVID-19. That’s also true when it comes to the risk involved with our pets.

To help address these concerns, animal and human infectious disease experts at the University of Calgary struck a task force to review what is currently known – and not known – about the coronavirus and the risk of its transmission between people and their pets. The task force reviewed the limited research to date on COVID-19 and domestic animals, along with past and current research on other coronaviruses, and opinions from experts in the field of infectious diseases that spread between people and animals.

The review of available research from around the world shows that while pets may contract COVID-19 there is very little risk of them passing it on to their people.

Dogs, cats, hamsters and ferrets all appear able to contract the virus, but evidence suggests they are not good spreaders - and symptoms remain mild.

Other COVID-19 projects

Dr. Reed Beall, Dr. Aiden Hollis 

One of the response concerns with COVID-19 involves development of new therapies and vaccines. This is likely to follow the same approach used in recent ID outbreaks, where a combination of industrial and government resources were applied to bring new and existing drugs or vaccines to market. The institutional framework supporting the development of these products, however, remains unclear and has not generally led to optimal outcomes. Following the emergence of HIV/AIDS, the development of antiretroviral therapies was funded by governments and industry but because the rights to the final products were controlled by industry, prices remained at levels that excluded millions of people from treatment (7). As in other diseases like Hepatitis C, failure to treat led to more infections, which increased the market opportunities for the drugs being sold, a perverse result. The development of an Ebola vaccine prior to, and during, the recent Ebola outbreaks has also been problematic, again due in part due to transfer of government-funded interventions to industry (8). We presently still lack a clear understanding of the relationship between science funding and the ownership of scientific results through patents and data exclusivity for infectious diseases that have pandemic potential, like COVID-19.


    1. We will undertake a rapid environmental scan of funding/ownership in these situations.

2. To improve this understanding, we will select two to three infections with presumed zoonotic origin. For each we will first document the evolution of the outbreaks. We will then examine related scientific papers over time, the geographic location of researchers, funding, and backward and forward citation.

3. Turning next to patents, we will repeat these steps by documenting the geographic location of inventors, ownership (funding), and backward and forward citation.

4. We finally will do the same for clinical trials. For each of the IDs examined, we expect that a substantial share of relevant research occurs immediately after an outbreak, giving rise to commercial opportunities. This study will provide information that will enable us to better understand how government-sponsored research is interacting with commercial exploitation for this special class of zoonotic IDs, and may also inform licensing conditions for COVID-19 treatments and vaccines. While focusing on one aspect of the social response to COVID-19, this study also bridges with the medical countermeasure of developing new drugs and vaccines.

Funding: CIHR rapid responce Operating Grant

Contact: Reed Beall